Climate Change and the Temperate-Boreal Forest Biome Boundary
The "Lake States" of Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan have millions of acres of transitional forests where boreal spruce and fir and temperate maple, basswood and oaks grow together. As the climate warms, temperate tree species are expected to invade the boreal forests. However, deer, earthworm invasion, and other factors are modifying the expected response, creating a complex mosaic of change across the landscape.
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Frelich, L.E., R.O. Peterson, M. Dovciak, P.B. Reich, J.A. Vucetich, and N. Eisenhauer. 2012. Trophic cascades, invasive species, and body-size hierarchies interactively modulate climate change responses of ecotonal temperate-boreal forest (PDF). Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society-B 367:2955-2961. [doi: 10.1098/rstb.2012.0235]